Mukdahan is situated on the banks of the Mekong River, bordering Laos. During the Ayutthaya period many of the inhabitans of Laos migrated to Mukdahan, establishing villages and infusing the region with the cultures of their various tribes. This mixture of cultures makes Mukdahan an interesting spot for tourists, and its close proximity to Laos makes it an ideal gateway to travel in Laos and Vietnam. A number of natural rock features and nature preserves are also a tourist draw for the province.
Mukdahan is divided into the following districts: Muang, Kham Cha-I, Nikhom Kham Soi, Don Tan, Dong Luang, Wan Yai, and Nong Sung.